Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Motor Behavior, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Imam Hossein University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Motor Behavior, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran


The purpose of this study was to review the studies conducted in Iran on the learning outcomes of motor and sports skills based on linear and non-linear pedagogy. A systematic review method based on the 2020 edition of the PRISMA statement was adopted for the qualitative synthesis of the literature. The search was conducted using 26 terms from three information sources (Iranian Scientific Journals System, Noor Specialized Journals Database, and Google Scholar) from 2000 to 2022. A total of 2086 records were obtained in the initial search. After assessing the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 26 eligible articles were included in this review. In total, 88% of the studies were conducted in the last five years, in which 1008 individuals participated (41% male). Most of the studies have been conducted in the field of physical education in schools (58%) focused on the instruction of nine types of motor and sport skills and examined physical (80%), cognitive (19%), and affective (42%) outcomes. Except for a few inconsistent studies, in most of the studies, non-linear pedagogies such as student-centered approach, sport education model, cooperative learning, constraint-led approach, and game-centered approaches (i.e., teaching games for understanding, tactical game approach, game sense, play practice, situated game teaching) were more effective in creating positive learning outcomes than linear pedagogies. Based on the findings of this systematic review, methodological considerations and future directions for research on the pedagogy of motor and sports skills are discussed.