Document Type : Research Paper
1 Assistant Professor of Motor Behavior, Department of Physical Education, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
2 M.Sc. of Motor Behavior, Department of Physical Education, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Motor Behavior, Farhangian University, Tehran
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of manipulating attentional focus on performance of top-spine strike of skilled and novice table tennis players under high psychological pressure. Thirty (15 skilled and 15 novices) persons participated in this study. Participants performed top-spine strike under high/low psychological pressure and different attentional focus conditions (single task, dual task with internal focus, dual task with irrelevant external attention, dual task with relevant external attention). Results revealed that novice group experienced lower decrease during high psychological pressure when their attentional focus was directed internally. No decrease was observed in the performance of skilled group when their attention was directed externally (relevant or irrelevant) during high pressure. These results were explained according to the dual effect of psychological pressure and the notion of controlling degrees of freedom.
- Hardy L, Mullen R, Jones G. Knowledge and conscious control of motor actions under stress. Br J Psychol. 1996;87(4):621-36.
- Beilock SL, Carr TH. On the fragility of skilled performance: What governs choking under pressure? J Exp Psychol Gen. 2001;130(4):701-25.
- Beilock SL, Gray R. Why do athletes choke under pressure? :Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons; 2007. p. 425-44.
- Beilock SL, Carr TH. When high-powered people fail: Working memory and “choking under pressure” in math. Psychol Sci. 2005;16(2):101-5.
- Beilock SL, Carr TH, MacMahon C, Starkes JL. When paying attention becomes counterproductive: impact of divided versus skill-focused attention on novice and experienced performance of sensorimotor skills. J Exp Psychol Appl. 2002;8(1): 6-16.
- Castaneda B, Gray R. Effects of focus of attention on baseball batting performance in players of differing skill levels. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2007;29(1):60-77.
- Jackson RC, Ashford KJ, Norsworthy G. Attentional focus, dispositional reinvestment, and skilled motor performance under pressure. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2006;28(1):49-68.
- Perkins-Ceccato N, Passmore SR, Lee TD. Effects of focus of attention depend on golfers' skill. J Sports Sci. 2003;21(8):593-600.
- Masters RS. Knowledge, knerves and know‐how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure. Br J Psychol. 1992;83(3):343-58.
- Ghasemian M, Taheri H. The effect of attention instruction on performance of table tennis players in under pressure situations. J M Development and Learning. 2014;6(4):475-91. (In Persian).
- Gray R. Attending to the execution of a complex sensorimotor skill: Expertise differences, choking, and slumps. J Exp Psychol Appl. 2004;10(1):42-54.
- Land W, Tenenbaum G. An outcome-and process-oriented examination of a golf-specific secondary task strategy to prevent choking under pressure. J App Sport Psychol. 2012;24(3):303-22.
- Yazdanparast F, Salehi H, Lanjannejadian S. The change of kinematics properties of tennis serve during compititive pressure. J M Development and Learning. 2016;8(1):99-112. (In Persian).
- Bernstein NA. (1967). The coordination and regulation of movements. Oxford: Pergamon Press. p.110-60.
- Cooke A, Kavussanu M, McIntyre D, Ring C. Psychological, muscular and kinematic factors mediate performance under pressure. Psychophysiol. 2010;47(6):1109-18.
- Collins D, Jones B, Fairweather M, Doolan S, Priestley N. Examining anxiety associated changes in movement patterns. Int J Sport Psychol, 32(3), 223-42.
- Higuchi T, Imanaka K, Hatayama T. Freezing degrees of freedom under stress: Kinematic evidence of constrained movement strategies. Hum Mov Sci. 2002;21(5-6):831-46.
- Pijpers JR, Oudejans RR, Holsheimer F, Bakker FC. Anxiety–performance relationships in climbing: A process-oriented approach. Psychol Sport Exer. 2003; 4(3): 283-304.
- Stergiou N. Innovative analyses of human movement. Champaign: Human Kinetics Publishers; 2004. p.29-60.
- Temprado J, Della-Grasta M, Farrell M, Laurent M. A novice-expert comparison of (intra-limb) coordination subserving the volleyball serve. Hum Mov Sci. 1997;16(5):653-76.
- Reeves JL, Tenenbaum G, Lidor R. Choking in front of the Goal: The effects of self‐consciousness training. Int J Sport Psychol. 2007;5(3):240-54.
- Sidaway B, Heise G, SchoenfelderZohdi B. Quantifying the variability of angle-angle plots. J Hum Mov Stud. 1995;29(4):181-97.
- Mullineaux DR, Bartlett RM, Bennett S. Research design and statistics in biomechanics and motor control. J Sports Sci. 2001;19(1):739-60.
- Gray R, Cañal-Bruland R. Attentional focus, perceived target size, and movement kinematics under performance pressure. Psychon Bull Rev. 2015;22(6):1692-700.
- Zahedi H, Shojaie M, Sadeghi H. The effect of attention and skill levell on the accuracy of basketball free throw during psychologgical pressure. J Res Sport Sci. 2010;2(6):131-47. (In Persian).