اثر خستگی برتصمیم‌گیری و رفتار جست‌وجوی بینایی بازیکنان مبتدی و ماهر فوتبال

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری یادگیری حرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی

2 استاد روانشناسی ورزشی – فیزیولوژی روانی، دانشگاه جامع امام حسین (ع)

3 داﻧﺸﯿﺎر رفتار حرکتی، داﻧﺸﮕﺎه آزاد اﺳﻼﻣﯽ واﺣﺪ تهران شمال

4 استادیار رفتارحرکتی، پژوهشگاه تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف مطالعۀ اثر خستگی بر تصمیم‌­گیری و رفتار جست‌وجوی بینایی بازیکنان مبتدی و ماهر فوتبال انجام شد. شرکت‌کنندگان 14 فوتبالیست مرد مبتدی با میانگین سنی 5/22 سال و 14 فوتبالیست مرد ماهر با میانگین سنی 4/27 سال بودند. هر دو گروه ﻓﯿﻠﻢﻫﺎﯾﯽ از ﻣﻮﻗﻌﯿـﺖ یک در مقابل یک‌حمله­‌ای را ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪه ﮐﺮدﻧﺪ. سپس تصمیم­ خود را که حرکت به چپ، راست و شوت بود، در دو حالت بدون خستگی (پیش‌آزمون) و خستگی (پس‌آزمون) اعلام کردند. رفتار جست‌وجوی بینایی بازیکنان با استفاده از ردیاب بینایی ارزیابی شد. نتایج آزمون تی همبسته نشان داد که بین نمرات تصمیم­‌گیری بازیکنان ماهر و مبتدی در قبل و بعد از خستگی تفاوت معنا­دار وجود نداشت (0.05< P). تعداد و زمان تثبیت­‌ها با آزمون تحلیل واریانس مرکب با اندازه­‌گیری مکرر ارزیابی شد. نتایج تعداد تثبیت‌­ها نشان داد که اثر اصلی سطح مهارت معنادار بود (0.05> P)، اما اثر اصلی مراحل آزمون معنا­دار نبود (0.05< P). همچنین اثر تعاملی سطح مهارت در نقطه خیرگی، تعامل مهارت با مراحل آزمون، تعامل مناطق خیرگی با مراحل آزمون و تعامل سطح مهارت در مناطق خیرگی با مراحل آزمون معنا­دار نبودند (0.05< P). بررسی میانگین­‌ها نشان داد که در هر دو گروه تعداد تثبیت در بالاتنه در مقایسه با پایین‌تنه بیشتر بود. نتایج زمان تثبیت‌­ها نشان داد که اثر اصلی سطح مهارت و مراحل آزمون معنا­دار نبودند (0.05< P). اثر تعاملی سطح مهارت در مراحل آزمون و تعامل سطح مهارت، نقاط خیرگی در مراحل آزمون معنادار بودند (0.05> P). بررسی میانگین‌ها نشان داد که گروه­‌ها مدت زمان بیشتری روی پاها تثبیت کرده‌اند. پیشنهاد می‌شود که براساس شناسایی نقاط مهم اطلاعات به بازیکنان آموزش داده شود که در شرایط خستگی به مناطق مهم‌­تر توجه کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Fatigue on Decision- Making and the Visual Search behavior of Novice and Expert Soccer Players

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mazaher Rahimpour 1
  • Mohammad Kazem Vaez Mousavi 2
  • Mahdi Namazi zadeh 3
  • Amir Shams 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Motor learning, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch
2 Professor of Sport Psychology, Imam Hossein University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor of Motor Behavior, Islamic Azad University - North Tehran Branch
4 Assistant Professor of Motor Behavior, Sport Sciences Research Institute of Iran (SSRI)
چکیده [English]

The goal of this study is to compare the effect of fatigue on decision-making and visual search behavior of novice and expert soccer players. Participants were 14 male novice soccer players (mean age= 22.5 years) and 14 experts (mean age= 27.4 years). Both groups watched films of 1 Vs. 1 attack situations. Then they announced their decision to move left, right, or shoot in two circumstances of not fatigue (pre-test) and fatigue (post-test). In addition, the visual search behavior of these players was evaluated through eye trackers. The results of t-test showed that there was no significant difference between the scores of decisions making of both groups in pre-test and posttest. (P>0.05). The number and duration of fixation were evaluated by ANOVA. The results of the number of fixations showed that the main effect of skill level was significant (P<0.05), but the main effect of the test stages was not significant (P>0.05). Also, the interactive effect of skill level at the gaze points, skill interaction with the test stages, interaction between the gaze areas with the test stages and interaction between the level of skill in the gaze areas of the test stages were not significant (P>0.05). Mean analysis showed that in both groups, the number of fixations on the upper body was higher than on the lower body. The results of fixation time showed that the main effect of skill level and test stages was not significant (P>0.05). The interactive effect of skill level in the test stages and interaction of skill level, gaze points in the test stages were significant (P<0.05). Mean analysis showed that the groups had longer periods of fixation on the legs. It is suggested that players to be trained to pay attention to critical points of opponents' body in fatigue situations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fixation
  • Gaze
  • Aye-Tracking
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