تاثیر تداخل زمینه ای در شرایط آشکار و پنهان بر یادگیری حرکتی کودکان دیرآموز

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پردیس البرز ، دانشگاه تهران ، دانشجوی دکتری رفتار حرکتی

2 بخش یادگیری و کنترل حرکتی

3 دانشیار گروه رفتار حرکتی ،دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی ،دانشگاه تهران

4 دانشیار گروه رفتار حرکتی دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران

5 استادیار دانشگاه دامغان

چکیده

هدف تحقیق حاضربررسی تاثیر تداخل زمینه ای درشرایط یادگیری آشکاروپنهان برهماهنگی و‏عملکرد حرکتی کودکان دیرآموز بود.‏به این منظور60کودک دیرآموز بامیانگین سنی80/0±82/12سال،به صورت دردسترس انتخاب وپس از کسب شرایط ورود به تحقیق و رضایت نامه بر اساس نمرات پیش آزمون به طور همگن در چهار گروه (تمرین آشکار بدون تداخل، ‏تمرین آشکار با تداخل، تمرین پنهان بدون تداخل و تمرین پنهان با تداخل) تقسیم شدند. ضریب هوشی با آزمون هوش وکسلر نسخه چهارم، هماهنگی حرکتی توسط آزمون هماهنگی دو دستی و عملکرد با دستگاه پیگردی چرخان سنجیده شد. سپس دوره تمرین چهار جلسه (با چهار بلوک نه کوششی در هر جلسه) تمرین با دستگاه پیگردی چرخان را در تمرین ویژه گروه های خود اجرا کردند. پس از چهار جلسه تمرین، مجددا شرکت کنندگان در متغیرهای فوق مورد اندازه گیری قرار گرفتند و نتایج آن به عنوان پس آزمون ثبت شد. برای تحلیل داده ها بین یادگیری گروه ها از آزمون تحلیل واریانس مرکب 2(نوع یادگیری) *2(شرایط ‏تمرین)در مراحل پس آزمون و یادداری در سطح معنی‌داری(05/0≥p) انجام شد. نتایج نشان می دهد در آزمون اکتساب و یادداری هماهنگی تفاوتی بین یادگیری آشکار و پنهان وجود نداشت(05/0<p).در اکتساب عملکرد حرکتی تفاوتی بین یادگیری آشکار و پنهان وجود نداشت(05/0<p).اما در یادداری عملکرد حرکتی تفاوت بین یادگیری آشکار و پنهان معنی دار نبود(05/0>p)و یادگیری پنهان بهبود عملکرد بیشتری را نشان دادند.همچنین در اکتساب عملکرد گروه با تداخل عملکرد برتر و در یادداری گروه بدون تداخل برتر بودند(05/0>p).می‌توان گفت تمرین کودکان دیرآموز در شرایط با تداخل زمینه ای و یادگیری پنهان به یادداری بهتری منجر می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Contextual Interference in implicit and explicit Conditions on motor learning in Slow- Learning Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • heydar mehrabi 1
  • MEHDI SHAHBAZI 2
  • elahe arabameri 3
  • Shahzad Tahmasebi Boroujeni 4
  • Hesam Ramezanzade 5
1 pardis alborz , University of Tehran,PhD Student of Motor Behavior
2 مدیر بخش
3 Associate Professor of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran.
4 Associate Professor of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran.
5 Assisstant Professor in Damghan University
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of contextual interference in implicit and explicit condition on the coordination and motor function in slow- learning children.For this purpose,60 slow- learning children with a mean age of12.28±0.80years where selected in available.After obtaining the terms of entry and consent, based on the pretest scores were divided into four groups(explicit practice without interference, explicit practice with interference,implicit practice without interference,implicit practice with interference).IQ was measured using Wechsler's Intelligence Test, fourth edition, bimanual coordination by the Vienna test and performance with a rotatory follow-up device. Then, the Four-session training (four blocks - nine attempts per session) was performed with a Pursuit rotatory in their special training sessions. After four sessions of training, the participants of the group were again measured in the above variables and the results were recorded as a post-test. For analysis of data, outcomes of the groups were analyzed by mixed analysis of variance 2(learning type)× 2(practice conditions) at post-test and retention stages at a significant level (p≤0.05).The results show that there is no difference between implicit and explicit learning in the acquisition and retention test (p<0.05).There is no difference between implicit and explicit learning in acquiring motor function (p<0.05).But in retention of motor performance, the difference between implicit and explicit learning was significant (p<0.05) and implicit learning showed better performance. In general, it can be said that in slow- learning children, the situation with the interaction of the implicit learning background leads to better memorization.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • contextual interference
  • Implicit learning
  • Explicit Learning
  • Motor performance
  • Borderline children
  1. Abdoli, behrooz. Aashayeri, hasan. Farokhi, Ahmad. Bagherzadeh, fazlolah. Comparison of implicit and explicit learning effects on chain reaction time. Harekat. 2004. 19: 23-40. (in Persian)
  2. Abdoli, behrooz. Comparing the effect of implicit and explicit learning on chain reaction time. University of Tehran. 2005. (in Persian)
  3. Masters, R. S. Knowledge, knerves and know‐how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure. British Journal of psychology. 1992.  83(3): 343-358.
  4. Masters, R., Lo, C., Maxwell, J., & Patil, N. Implicit motor learning in surgery: implications for multi-tasking. Surgery. 2008. 143(1):140-145.
  5. Maxwell, J., Masters, R., Kerr, E., & Weedon, E. The implicit benefit of learning without errors. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A. 2001. 54(4):1049-1068.
  6. Mohammadi, hanye. Tahmasbi borojeni, shahrzad. Fazelkalkhoran, jamal. Effect of contextual Interference on the Static and Dynamic balance of Mentally Retarded Persons, sport-motor learning and development. 2017. 23(8). (in Persian)
  7. Schmidt, R. A., & Lee, T. D. Motor control and learning: a behavioral approach. Human Kinetics, Champaign. 1999.
  8. Hardy, L., Mullen, R., & Jones, G. Knowledge and conscious control of motor actions under stress. British Journal of psychology. 1996. 87(4):621-636.
  9. Magill, R. A., & Hall, K. G. A review of the contextual interference effect in motor skill acquisition. Human movement science. 1990. 9(3):241-289.
  10. Masters, R., Poolton, J. M., Maxwell, J. P., & Raab, M. Implicit motor learning and complex decision making in time-constrained environments. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2008. 40(1):71-79.
  11. Poolton, J., Masters, R., & Maxwell, J. The influence of analogy learning on decision-making in table tennis: Evidence from behavioural data. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2006. 7(6):677-688.
  12. Battig, W. F. The flexibility of human memory. Levels of processing and human memory, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ. 1979.  23-44.
  13. Slapper, J., Dornier, L., & Blight, T. Investigating contextual interference effects using a timing task with adults and children. Paper presented at the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1999.
  14. Magil, R.A. Motor Learning concepts and applications, vaezmousavi, mohamadkazem. Shojaei, masoome. Tehran, hananeh. 2001. (in Persian)
  15. Sekiya, H. Contextual interference in implicit and explicit motor learning. Perceptual and motor skills. 2006. 103(2):333-343.
  16. Shea, C. H., Wulf, G., Whitacre, C. A., & Park, J.-H. Surfing the implicit wave. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A. 2001. 54(3):841-862.
  17. Capio, C. M., Sit, C. H., Abernethy, B., & Masters, R. S. The possible benefits of reduced errors in the motor skills acquisition of children. Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology. 2012.  4(1), 1.
  18. Poolton, J. M., Masters, R. S. W., & Maxwell, J. P. Passing thoughts on the evolutionary stability of implicit motor behaviour: Performance retention under physiological fatigue. Consciousness and Cognition. 2007. 16(2):456-468. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2006.06.008
  19. Poolton, J. M., Masters, R. S., & Maxwell, J. P. The development of a culturally appropriate analogy for implicit motor learning in a Chinese population. The Sport Psychologist. 2007. 21(4):375-382.
  20. Maxwell JP, Capio CM, Masters RSW. Interaction between motor ability and skill learning in children: Application of implicit and explicit approaches. European Journal of Sport Science. 2017. 17(4):407-16.
  21. Behpajooh, Ahmad. What are Borderline children and what are their parents doing? Peyvand. 2012. 398. (in Persian)
  22. Afrooz ‎G.Ali. Sychology and rehabilitation of slow pace children. Tehran. University of Tehran. 2002. (in Persian)
  23. Jongbloed-Pereboom M, Janssen AJWM, Steiner K, Steenbergen B, Nijhuis-van der Sanden MWG. Implicit and explicit motor sequence learning in children born very preterm. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2017. 60:145-52.
  24.  Izadi-Najafabadi, Sara.Mirzakhani-Araghi, Navid.Miri-Lavasani, Negar.Nejati,vahid. Pashazadeh-Azari, Zahra. Implicit and explicit motor learning: Application to children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).2015.47:284-296. (in Persian)
  25. Azizyan,M. Asadzade,H. Alizade,H. Dortaj,F. Saadipoor,E. Developing and Implementing an Educational Package for Training Executive Functions and its Effectiveness on underachiever pupils' Academic Achievement.2017.5(8):113-137. (in Persian)
  26. Sadeghi, Ahmad. Rabie, Mohammad. Aabedi, mohamadreza. Validation and reliability of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale of Children's- Fourth Edition, Transformational Psychology. 2011. 28(7): 377-386. (In Persian).
  27. Lotfi, Mohammad. Mohammadzadeh, Hassan. Mohammadi, jafar. Sohrabi, mehdi. Comparison of learning of subtle and obvious motorcycle sequences in mentally retarded children, Journal of Exceptional Children. 2016. 1(16):43-51. (in Persian)
  28. Zarezade. M, Ansari. O, Saberi Kakhaki. A.R. The Effect of External Attentional Focus Instructions on Learning Tracking Task under Auditory Secondary Task Condition. Motor Behavior. Winter 2017; 8 (26): 73-88. (In Persian)
  29. Aslankhani,M a. Abdoli,B. Farohki,A. Shams,A. Shamsipoor dehkordi,P. The effect of contextual interference and feedback type on performance and learning of parameter in pursuit tasks.2009.3:209-216. (in Persian)
  30. Kheyrandish, Ali. Abdoli, behrooz, ramazizadeh, mehdi. The effect of contextual interference in ipmlicit and explicit learning conditions in tracking skill. Olympic. 2007. 3(17):75-86. (in Persian)
  31. Prado MTA, Fernani DCGL, da Silva TD, Smorenburg AR, de Abreu LC, de Mello Monteiro CB. Motor learning paradigm and contextual interference in manual computer tasks in individuals with cerebral palsy. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2017. 64:56-63.
  32. Wulf G, Weigelt C. Instructions about physical principles in learning a complex motor skill: To tell or not to tell. Research quarterly for exercise and sport. 1997. 68(4):362.
  1. Gianutsos, J., Jarust, T., Wugholter, E.H. Effects of contextual interference and condition of movment task on acquisition, retention and transfer of motor skills by movement. Perceptual and motor skills.1997. 84:179-193.