Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Science, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr. Iran


There is a lack of studies on the coordination of the various limbs involved in performing dart-throwing skill in novices and skilled performers. The aim of the present study was to describe and compare the intra-limb coordination of the shoulder-elbow joints in different phases of dart throwing skill in skilled and novice throwers. Participants included 12 novice throwers (mean age of 21.91±2.31 years old) and one skilled thrower (32 years old). Intra-limb coordination consisted of coordination between the shoulder and elbow joints and was demonstrated using angle-angle plots. The start and end points of the throws were standardized using the linear interpolation method and normalized to 100 points. Moreover, the movement pattern error was calculated using the NoRMD formula. The results showed that there was a clear difference between skilled and novice throwers in the intra-limb coordination of the shoulder-elbow joints in both phases of dart throwing. There was also a significant difference between the movement pattern of novice throwers and skilled thrower (NoRMD=50). The findings were discussed according to the spatio-temporal characteristics of dart throwing skills in skilled and novice throwers and its practical considerations in improving skills and preventing movement errors.


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