تأثیر فعالیت بدنی منظم بر تغییرات سطح سرمی عامل رشد عصبی مشتق از مغز، بهرۀ هوشی و تبحر حرکتی کودکان کم‌توان‌ذهنی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشگاه شاهد

2 استادیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

3 استادیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر رفسنجان

4 استادیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشگاه علامه‌طباطبایی

5 کارشناسی‌ارشد رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه شاهد‌

6 کارشناسی‌ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه‌

چکیده

فعالیت ورزشی از طریق تحریک ترشح عوامل رشد عصبی بر عملکرد حرکتی و شناختی اثرگذار می‌باشد. دراین‌راستا، هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی اثر 12 هفته فعالیت ورزشی بر سطوح سرمی عامل رشد عصبی مشتق از مغز و تبحر حرکتی کودکان کم‌توان‌ذهنی بود. بدین‌منظور، 40 دانش‌آموز پسر (‌12ـ6 سال) کم‌توان‌ذهنی آموزش‌پذیر به‌صورت هدفمند انتخاب شدند و به‌صورت تصادفی در دو گروه شاهد (20 نفر) و تجربی (20 نفر) قرار گرفتند. برنامۀ فعالیت ورزشی شامل انجام حرکات ریتمیک مختلف و بازی به‌مدت 12 هفته و به‌صورت چهار جلسۀ 45 دقیقه‌ای در هفته بود. 48 ساعت قبل از اولین جلسه و 48 ساعت پس از آخرین جلسۀ تمرینی از تمامی آزمودنی‌ها درحالت ناشتا خون‌گیری به‌عمل آمد. همچنین، سطوح سرمی عامل رشد عصبی مشتق از مغز با استفاده از روش الایزا و تبحر حرکتی از طریق مقیاس لینکلن ـ اوزرتسکی سنجیده شد. به‌منظور تجزیه‌و‌تحلیل داده‌ها نیز آزمون تحلیل کوواریانس مورداستفاده قرار گرفت (P≤0.05). نتایج نشان می‌دهد که سطوح سرمی عامل رشد عصبی مشتق از مغز پس از اجرای یک دوره فعالیت ورزشی منظم افزایش معناداری یافته است و نمرۀ کلی آزمون تبحر حرکتی نیز در گروه تمرینات ورزشی به‌صورت معناداری بهبود پیدا کرده است (P≤0.05). از‌سوی‌دیگر، بهرۀ هوشی در هیچ‌یک از گروه‌ها تغییر معناداری را نشان نمی‌دهد؛ در‌نتیجه، فعالیت ورزشی منظم ممکن است به‌واسطۀ افزایش سطح عامل رشد عصبی مشتق از مغز موجب بهبود تبحر حرکتی کودکان کم‌توان‌ذهنی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Regular Physical Activity on Changes of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Intelligence Quotient and Motor Development of Mental Retardation Children’s

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin Isanejad 1
  • Abdolhosein Parno 2
  • Abdolreza Kazemin 3
  • Rasol Eslami 4
  • Shiva Piri 5
  • Azadeh Hoseini 6
1 Assistant Professor of Sport Physiology, Shahed University
2 Assistant Professor of Sport Physiology, Razi University
3 Assistant Professor of Sport Physiology, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan
4 Assistant Professor of Sport Physiology, Allame Tabatabaee University
5 M. Sc. in Motor Behavior, Shahed University
6 M. Sc. in Sport Physiology, Razi University
چکیده [English]

Physical activity by inducing the secretion of neurotrophic factors may affect the motor development and cognitive function. The aim of this study was investigating the effects of three months of regular physical activity on the serum Brain-derived Neurotrophic factor, intelligent quotation and motor development of mental retardation children’s. Forty children with mental retardation (12-16 years old) were availably selected and randomly assigned in control (n=20) and physical activity training (n=20) groups. Training program include 3 months (12 weeks), 3 d·wk–1 and 45 minutes in each session. Serum BDNF, intelligence quotient and motor development were determined 48 hours before and after physical activity program with an ELISA and Lincoln-Oseretsky motor development scale, respectively. The data were analyzed by using ANCOVA (P≤0.05). The results showed that 3 months regular physical activity increased significantly the level of BDNF and motor development of training group (P≤0.05). The total scores of perceptual-motor ability subscales such as speed, general dynamic coordination and hand dynamic coordination improved significantly after 3 months of regular physical activity (P≤0.05). There is no significant change of intelligence quotient scores in control and experimental groups. Therefore, regular physical activity may affect the motor development of children with mental retardation through brain derived neurothrophic factors.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Physical Activity
  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
  • Intelligence Quotient Motor Development
  • Mental Retardation
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