1. Luckasson R, Borthwick-Duffy S, Buntinx W H, Coulter D L, Craig E M, Reeve A, et al. Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports. 10th ed. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation. 2002.
2. Bruininks R H. Physical and motor development of retarded persons. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation. 1974; 7: 209-61.
3. Berry P, Gunn V P, Andrews R J. Development of Down's Syndrome children from birth to five years. Perspectives and Progress in Mental Retardation. 1984; 1: 167-77.
4. Eichstaedt C B. Physical activity for individuals with mental retardation: Infancy through adulthood. Human Kinetics; Virginia,1992: 55-7.
5. Youn G, Youn S. Influence of training and performance IQ on the psychomotor skill of Down Syndrome persons. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1991; 73(3 suppl): 1191-4.
6. Rahbanfard H. Effect of a specific motor program on cognitive-motor abilities in 10-13 year old mentally retarded education possible boys in Tehran (Msc thesis). Tehran University; 1998. (In Persian).
7. Cotman C W, Engesser-Cesar C. Exercise enhances and protects brain function. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. 2002; 30(2): 75-9.
8. Ghanayi Chemanabad A, Kareshki H. Effect of rhythmic movements learning on intelligence and social development of preschool children. The Horizon of Medical Sciences. 2013; 18(4): 203-7.
9.Berkman L F, Seeman T E, Albert M, Blazer D, Kahn R, Mohs R, et al. High, usual and impaired functioning in community-dwelling older men and women: Findings from the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on successful aging. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1993; 46(10): 1129-40.
10. Sibley B A, Etnier J L. The relationship between physical activity and cognition in children: A meta-analysis. Pediatric Exercise Science. 2003; 15(3): 243-56.
11. Corder W O. Effects of physical education on the intellectual, physical, and social development of educable mentally retarded boys. Exceptional Children. 1966; 32: 357–64.
12. Brown B J. The effect of an isometric strength program on the intellectual and social development of trainable retarded males. American Corrective Therapy Journal. 1976; 31(2): 44-8.
13. Hughes C, Graham A. Measuring executive functions in childhood: Problems and solutions? Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 2002; 7(3): 131-42.
14. Ferris L T, Williams J S, Shen C L. The effect of acute exercise on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive function. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2007; 39(4): 728-34.
15. Neeper S A, Gómez-Pinilla F, Choi J, Cotman C W. Physical activity increases mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in rat brain. Brain Research. 1996; 726(1): 49-56.
16. Estrada J A, Contreras I, Pliego-Rivero F B, Otero G A. Molecular mechanisms of cognitive impairment in iron deficiency: Alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor expression and function in the central nervous system. Nutritional Neuroscience. 2014; 17(5): 193-206.
17. Chapleau C A, Larimore J L, Theibert A, Pozzo-Miller L. Modulation of dendritic spine development and plasticity by BDNF and vesicular trafficking: Fundamental roles in neurodevelopmental disorders associated with mental retardation and autism. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders. 2009; 1(3): 185.
18.Nassar M F, Younis N T, Nassar J F, El-Arab S E, Mohammad B M. Brain derived neurotrophic growth factor and cognitive function in children with iron deficiency anemia. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research. 2014; 4(18): 3561.
19.Nelson K B, Grether J K, Croen L A, Dambrosia J M, Dickens B F, Jelliffe L L, et al. Neuropeptides and neurotrophins in neonatal blood of children with autism or mental retardation. Annals of Neurology. 2001; 49(5): 597-606.
20. Huang T, Larsen K T, Ried‐Larsen M, Moller N C, Andersen L B. The effects of physical activity and exercise on brain‐derived neurotrophic factor in healthy humans: A review. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2014; 24(1): 1-10.
21. Vosadi E, Barzegar H, Borjianfard M. The effect of endurance training and high-fat diet in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the male adult rat hippocampus. Arak Medical University Journal. 2014; 16(10): 84-92. (In Persian).
22.Mehdipour M, Damirchi A, Babaie P. Comparison the effects of tow high intensity aerobic and anaerobic exercise on serum levels of BDNF, platelets and memory function of healthy middle age people. Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology Research. 2015; 10(20): 23-34. (In Persian).
23. Kempermann G, van Praag H, Gage F H. Activity-dependent regulation of neuronal plasticity and self repair. Progress in Brain Research. 2000; 127: 35-48.
24.Fritsch B, Reis J, Martinowich K, Schambra H M, Ji Y, Cohen L G, et al. Direct current stimulation promotes BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity: Potential implications for motor learning. Neuron. 2010; 66(2): 198-204.
25.Voti P L, Conte A, Suppa A, Iezzi E, Bologna M, Aniello M S, et al. Correlation between cortical plasticity, motor learning and BDNF genotype in healthy subjects. Experimental Brain Research. 2011; 212(1): 91-9.
26. Mizuno M, Yamada K, Olariu A, Nawa H, Nabeshima T. Involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in spatial memory formation and maintenance in a radial arm maze test in rats. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2000; 20(18): 7116-21.
27. Ickes B R, Pham T M, Sanders L A, Albeck D S, Mohammed A H, Granholm A C. Long-term environmental enrichment leads to regional increases in neurotrophin levels in rat brain. Experimental Neurology. 2000; 164(1): 45-52.
28. Torasdotter M, Metsis M, Henriksson B G, Winblad B, Mohammed A H. Environmental enrichment results in higher levels of nerve growth factor mRNA in the rat visual cortex and hippocampus. Behavioural Brain Research. 1998; 93(1): 83-90.
29. Nattaj F H, Javan A T, Framarzi S, Abedi A. Effectiveness of rhythmic play on the attention and memory functioning in children with mild intellectual disability (MID). International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences. 2014; (17): 9-21. (In Persian).
30. Kamijo K, Hayashi Y, Sakai T, Yahiro T, Tanaka K, Nishihira Y. Acute effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 2009; 64(3): 356-63.
31. Bialer I, Doll L, Winsberg B G. A modified Lincoln-Oseretsky motor development scale: Provisional standardization. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1974; 38(2): 599-614.
32. Chasey W C, Wyrick W. Effect of a gross motor developmental program on form perception skills of educable mentally retarded children. Research Quarterly. American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation. 1970; 41(3): 345-52.
33. Yar Yari F, Pashazadeh Z. The comparative study of motor skills and neuro-muscular of ADHT student with healthy 7-10 aged student (Msc thesis). Theran University; 1991. (In Persian).
34. Ghanayi Chemanabad A. Effect of rhythmic movements learning on intelligence and social development of preschool children. Quarterly of the Horizon of Medical Sciences. 2013; 18(4): 203-7. (In Persian).
35. Shephard R J. Curricular physical activity and academic performance. Pediatric Exercise Science. 1997; 9: 113-26.
36. Gapin J, Etnier J L. The relationship between physical activity and executive function performance in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2010; 32(6): 753-63.
37. Bradinova I, Shopova S, Simeonov E. Mental retardation in childhood: Clinical and diagnostic profile in 100 children. Genetic Counseling: Medical, Psychological, and Ethical Aspects. 2005; 16(3): 239-48.
38. Youkslen A D. Effect of exercise for fundamental movement skills in mentally with neuropsychological disabilities children. Middle East Journal of Family Medicine. 2012; 6(5): 249-52.
39. Molteni R, Ying Z, Gómez‐Pinilla F. Differential effects of acute and chronic exercise on plasticity‐related genes in the rat hippocampus revealed by microarray. European Journal of Neuroscience. 2002; 16(6): 1107-16.
40. Erickson K I, Voss M W, Prakash R S, Basak C, Szabo A, Chaddock L, et al. Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2011; 108(7): 3017-22.