اثر فعالیت بدنی با سطوح متفاوت بار شناختی بر امواج مغزی قشر سینگولیت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه تبریز

2 دانشجوی دکتری رفتارحرکتی، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

فعالیت­های بدنی و شناختی اثرهای مثبتی بر عملکردهای شناختی دارند، اما به­ندرت در ترکیب با یکدیگر استفاده شده­اند؛ ازاین رو، مطالعۀ حاضر با هدف بررسی اثر فعالیت بدنی با سطوح متفاوت بار شناختی بر امواج مغزی قشر سینگولیت انجام شد. در این پژوهش نیمه­تجربی، 30 دانشجوی دختر کم­تحرک با متوسط سنی 92/1 ± 63/22 سال به روش نمونه­گیری دردسترس انتخاب شدند و براساس جایگزینی تصادفی در سه گروه 10 نفره (فعالیت بدنی بدون بار شناختی، فعالیت بدنی با بار شناختی و کنترل) قرار گرفتند. نمونه­های دو گروه تجربی به­مدت 16 جلسه در برنامۀ تمرینی مخصوص به گروه خود قرار گرفتند، اما گروه کنترل به فعالیت روزانۀ خود پرداختند. قبل و بعد از برنامۀ تمرینی، امواج مغزی با استفاده از دستگاه EEG در حالت استراحت و با چشمان باز ثبت شد و داده­های نواحی Fz، Cz و Pz در امواج مغزی دلتا، تتا، آلفا و بتا با استفاده از روش آماری تحلیل کوواریانس چندمتغیره و آزمون تعقیبی بونفرونی در سطح معناداری 05/0 تحلیل شد.نتایج نشان داد که موج مغزی دلتا در ناحیۀ Fz کاهش یافت و موج مغزی آلفا در ناحیۀ Pz از نظر آماری افزایش معناداری در شرکت‌کنندگان هر دو گروه آزمایش داشت، اما تفاوت معناداری بین اثرگذاری فعالیت بدنی با و بدون بار شناختی بر امواج مغزی قشر سینگولیت مشاهده نشد. براساس یافته­های این مطالعه، بهره­گیری از هر نوع فعالیت بدنی (با و بدون بار شناختی)، احتمالاً بتواند شرایط تحریک نورون­ها را در سطح قشر سینگولیت مغز فراهم آورد و باعث ایجاد سازگاری­هایی در دستگاه عصبی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Physical Activity with Different Levels of Cognitive Load on the Cingulate Cortex's Brain Waves

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahta Eskandarnejad 1
  • Fahimeh Rezaei 2
1 Associate Professor of Motor Behavior, University of Tabriz
2 Ph.D. Student of Motor Behavior, Urmia University
چکیده [English]

Physical and cognitive activities have positive effects on cognitive functions, but have been rarely applied in combination with each other. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of physical activity with different levels of cognitive load on the cingulate cortex's brain waves. The present study is semi-experimental. 30 sedentary female students with an average age 22.63 ± 1.92 years were selected by convenience sampling and equally divided into three groups (physical activity without cognitive load, physical activity with cognitive load and control). The experimental groups practiced specific training program for 16 sessions, but the control group performed their daily activities. Brain waves, before and after the training program, was recorded using EEG device in resting position and with open eyes. Fz, Cz and Pz data in the Delta, Theta, Alpha and Beta brain waves were analyzed using MANCOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test in the significant level of 0.05. The results showed a significant decrease for Delta brain wave in Fz and a significant increase for Alpha brain wave in Pz among participants into both experimental groups. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the effects of physical activity with and without cognitive load on the cingulate cortex's brain waves. According to the findings of the present study, physical activity with and without cognitive load could possibly provide the conditions for stimulation of neurons in the cingulate cortex, which may lead to adaptation in the nervous system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • : Aerobic
  • Cerebral cortex
  • Electroencephalography
St-Louis-Deschenes M, Moore R, Ellemberg D. The effect of acute aerobic exercise on spontaneous brain activity in children. Pediat Therapeut. 2015;5(1):1-4.
Smith AM, Spiegler KM, Sauce B, Wass CD, Sturzoiu T, Matzel LD. Voluntary aerobic exercise increases the cognitive enhancing effects of working memory training. Behav Brain Res. 2013;256:626-35.
Ogoh S, Ainslie PN. Cerebral blood flow during exercise: Mechanisms of regulation. J Appl Physiol. 2009;107(5):1370-80.
Van der Borght K, Kóbor‐Nyakas DÉ, Klauke K, Eggen BJ, Nyakas C, Van der Zee EA, et al. Physical exercise leads to rapid adaptations in hippocampal vasculature: temporal dynamics and relationship to cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Hippocampus. 2009;19(10):928-36.
Cotman CW, Berchtold NC. Exercise: A behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity. Trends Neurosci. 2002;25(6):295-301.
Gordon BA, Rykhlevskaia EI, Brumback CR, Lee Y, Elavsky S, Konopack JF, et al. Neuroanatomical correlates of aging, cardiopulmonary fitness level, and education. Psychophysiology. 2008;45(5):825-38.
Johnson NF, Kim C, Clasey JL, Bailey A, Gold BT. Cardiorespiratory fitness is positively correlated with cerebral white matter integrity in healthy seniors. Neuroimage. 2012;59(2):1514-23.
Piepmeier AT, Etnier JL. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a potential mechanism of the effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance. J Sport Health Sci. 2015;4(1):14-23.
Valim V, Natour J, Xiao Y, Pereira AFA, da Cunha Lopes BB, Pollak DF, et al. Effects of physical exercise on serum levels of serotonin and its metabolite in fibromyalgia: A randomized pilot study. Rev Bras Reumatol. 2013;53(6):538-41.
Alijanpour N, Kazemi A, Akbari M, Ashayeri H. The comparison of brain's cortex electrical activity between endurance runners and sedentary men during rest period. J Exerc Physiol Physic Activ. 2014;6(13):1037-44. (In Persian).
Demos JN. Getting started with neurofeedback. New York: WW Norton & Company; 2005. p. 48-9.
Vernon DJ. Can neurofeedback training enhance performance? An evaluation of the evidence with implications for future research. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2005;30(4):347-64.
Klimesch W. EEG alpha and theta oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performance: a review and analysis. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1999;29(2-3):169-95.
Doppelmayr M, Klimesch W, Stadler W, Pöllhuber D, Heine C. EEG alpha power and intelligence. Intelligence. 2002;30(3):289-302.
Engel A K, Fries P. Beta-band oscillations-signalling the status quo? Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2010;20(2):156-65.
Luu P, Tucker D M, Makeig S. Frontal midline theta and the error-related negativity: neurophysiological mechanisms of action regulation. Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;115(8):1821-35.
Knyazev G G. EEG delta oscillations as a correlate of basic homeostatic and motivational processes. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012;36(1):677–95.
Smit AS, Eling PA, Hopman MT, Coenen AM. Mental and physical effort affect vigilance differently. Int J Psychophysiol. 2005;57(3):211-17.
Hosseini M, Sharifi MR, Ataei R, Alaei H. The effect of physical activity on spontaneous electroencephalographic activity in rat. J Kerman U Med Sci. 2006;13(4):215-22. (In Persian).
Gutmann B, Mierau A, Hülsdünker T, Hildebrand C, Przyklenk A, Hollmann W, et al. Effects of physical exercise on individual resting state EEG alpha peak frequency. Neural Plast. 2015; 2015:1-6.
Woo M, Kim S, Kim J, Petruzzello SJ, Hatfield BD. Examining the exercise-affect dose–response relationship: Does duration influence frontal EEG asymmetry? Int J Psychophysiol. 2009;72(2):166-72.
Guimaraes TT, da Costa BM, Cerqueira LS, Serdeiro AdCA, Pompeu FAMS, de Moraes HS, et al. Acute effect of different patterns of exercise on mood, anxiety and cortical activity. Arch Neurosci. 2015;2(1):e18781.
Tomporowski PD, McCullick B, Pendleton DM, Pesce C. Exercise and children's cognition: the role of exercise characteristics and a place for metacognition. J Sport Health Sci. 2015;4(1):47-55.
Rahe J, Becker J, Fink GR, Kessler J, Kukolja J, Rahn A, et al. Cognitive training with and without additional physical activity in healthy older adults: Cognitive effects, neurobiological mechanisms, and prediction of training success. Front Aging Neurosci. 2015;7:187-95.
Bailey EK, Douglas T, Wolff D, Bailey S. Coordinated and aerobic exercise do not improve attention in graduate students. Open Sports Sci J. 2014;7:203-07.
Black JE, Isaacs KR, Anderson BJ, Alcantara AA, Greenough WT. Learning causes synaptogenesis, whereas motor activity causes angiogenesis, in cerebellar cortex of adult rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87(14):5568-72.
Eskandarnejad M. Help and teach aerobic basic movements. 4th ed. Tabriz: Akhtar; 2015. 13-4. (In Persian).
Abedi A, Kazemi F, Shooshtari M. Investigation of effects of aerobic exercise on improving executive functions and attention of children with neuropsychological learning disabilities. J Learn Disabil. 2014;4(2):121-8. (In Persian).
Moreau D, Morrison AB, Conway ARA. An ecological approach to cognitive enhancement: Complex motor training. Acta Psychologica. 2015;157(2015):44-55.
Lardon MT, Polich J. EEG changes from long-term physical exercise. Biol Psychol. 1996:44(1):19-30.
Perez L, Padilla C, Parmentier FB, Andres P. The effects of chronic exercise on attentional networks. Plos One. 2014;9(7):101478.
Behzadnia B. Comparison the influence of Aerobic and Hip-hop training methods on the psychological well-being in male Students. [Master's thesis]: Urmia. Urmia University; 2010. (In Persian).
Haghir H, Mehraein P, Mehdizadeh M. Sexual dimorphism in volume and surface anatomical parameters of cingulate cortex in normal human brains: A stereologic and macroscopic study. J Gorgan Univ Med Sci. 2005;7(1):1-5. (In Persian).
Thompson T, Steffert T, Ros T, Leach J, Gruzelier J. EEG applications for sport and performance. Methods. 2008; 45(4): 279-88.
Delavar A. Educational and Psychological Research. 4th ed. Tehran: Virayesh; 2008. p. 97-8. (In Persian).
Shayan A, Bagherzadeh F, Shahbazi M, Choobineh S. The effect of two types of exercise (endurance and resistance) on attention and brain derived neurotropic factor levels in sedentary students. J Dev Mot Learn. 2015;6(4):433-52.  (In Persian).
Chang ECH, Chu CH, Karageorghis CI, Wang CC, Tsai JHC, Wang YS, et al. Relationship between mode of sport training and general cognitive performance. J Sport Health Sci. 2017;6(1):89-95.
American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 9th ed. NewYork: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013. p. 82-3.
Eskandarnejad M, Ashkriz N. Learning Step by Step of Aerobics and stepp. Tabriz: Publishing of Tabriz University; 2018. p. 180-2. (In Persian).
Barati Dowom P, Roshanaei K, Darvishi M. Neurophysiological mechanism of sleep and wakefulness regulation. The Neuroscience Journal of Shefaye Khatam.2015;3(3):121-35. (In Persian).
Crabbe JB, Dishman RK. Brain electrocortical activity during and after exercise: a quantitative synthesis. Psychophysiology. 2004;41(4):563-74.
Marshall AC, Cooper NR, Segrave R, Geeraert N. The effects of long-term stress exposure on aging cognition: a behavioral and EEG investigation. Neurobiol Aging. 2015;36(6):2136-44.
Fink A, Graif B, Neubauer AC. Brain correlates underlying creative thinking: EEG alpha activity in professional vs. novice dancers. NeuroImage. 2009;46(3):854-62.
Niedermeyer E, da Silva FL. Electroencephalography: Basic principles, clinical applications, and related fields. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005. p. 775-6.
Babiloni C, Marzano N, Iacoboni M, Infarinato F, Aschieri P, Buffo P, et al. Resting state cortical rhythms in athletes: a high-resolution EEG study. Brain Res Bull. 2010;81(1):149-56.
Merz C, Henz D, Ulrich L, Schollhorn WI. Acute effects of high-intensity interval training on EEG brain activity. Society for Psychophysiological Research; 2017 Oct 11; Vienna.
Amjad I, Toor HG, Niazi IK, Afzal H, Jochumsen M, Shafiq M, et al. Therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise on EEG parameters and higher cognitive functions in mild cognitive impairment patients. Int J Neurosci. 2018;129(6):1-30.
Wigal SB, Emmerson N, Gehricke JG, Galassetti P. Exercise: applications to childhood ADHD. J Atten Disord. 2013;17(4):279-90.
Dringenberg HC, Rubenstein ML, Solty H, Tomaszek S, Bruce A. Electroencephalographic activation by tacrine, deprenyl, and quipazine: cholinergic vs. non-cholinergic contributions. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;447(1):43-50.
Moraes H, Ferreira C, Deslandes A, Cagy M, Pompeu F, Ribeiro P, et al. Beta and alpha electroencephalographic activity changes after acute exercise. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2007;65(3A):637-41.
Swaab DF. Sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 21(3):431-44.
Limbu N, Sinha R, Sinha M, Paudel BH. Gender based EEG before and after acute bout of aerobic exercise. Asian J Med Sci. 2015;6(2):29-34.
Fumoto M, Oshima T, Kamiya K, Kikuchi H, Seki Y, Nakatani Y, et al. Ventral prefrontal cortex and serotonergic system activation during pedaling exercise induces negative mood improvement and increased alpha band in EEG. Behav Brain Res. 2010;213(1):1-9.
Dey S, Singh R, Dey P. Exercise training: Significance of regional alterations in serotonin metabolism of rat brain in relation to antidepressant effect of exercise. Physiol Behav. 1992;52(6):1095-9.
Javanmard GH. Comparing the posterior areas of the brainwave activity in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Urmia Med J. 2011;22(3):176-84. (In Persian).
Kraaier V, Van Huffelen A, Wieneke G, Van der Worp H, Bär P. Quantitative EEG changes due to cerebral vasoconstriction. Indomethacin versus hyperventilation-induced reduction in cerebral blood flow in normal subjects. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1992;82(3):208-12.
Madani A, Heydari-Nasab L, Yaghoubi H, Rostami R. The effectiveness of neurofeedback with cognitive tasks on attention deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD symptoms) in adulthood. J Clin Psychol. 2016;7(4):59-70. (In Persian).