تأثیر یادگیری مبتنی ‌بر آزمون-خطا و تغییرپذیری تمرین بر تلاش ذهنی و عملکرد پرتابی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه سمنان

2 کارشناسی‌ارشد رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد کرج

3 استادیار رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرج

چکیده

استفاده از تلاش ذهنی در تمرین متغیر و تمرین کم‌خطا از یکدیگر متفاوت است؛ به‌صورتی‌که دلیل افزایش یادگیری مهارت را افزایش خطا در تمرین متغیر می‎دانند؛ درحالی‌که نتیجة بهینة عملکرد در تمرین کم‌خطا به‎خاطر کاهش تلاش ذهنی در آن است؛ بنابراین، هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی تناقض اثر تلاش شناختی در تغییرپذیری تمرین و یادگیری پنهان با به‌کارگیری هر دو روش یادگیری بر یک تکلیف پیچیدة یکسان و در شرایط یکسان تکلیف ثانویة شناختی بود. بدین‌منظور، 72 دانشجو به شش گروه 12 نفری کم‌خطا-متغیر، پرخطا-متغیر، کم‌خطا-ثابت، پرخطا-ثابت، کنترل-ثابت و کنترل-متغیر تقسیم شدند. تمامی گروه‌ها در پیش‌آزمون، سه روز تمرینی، آزمون‌های اکتساب، یادداری و انتقال ثانویه شرکت کردند. شرکت‌کنندگان گروه پرخطا-متغیر به‌ترتیب از فواصل 5/3، 25/3 ،3، 75/2 و 5/2 متری و گروه کم‌خطا-متغیر به‌طور برعکس در همین فواصل تمرین کردند؛ درحالی‌که گروه کم‌خطا-ثابت فقط از فاصلة 5/2متری، گروه پرخطا-ثابت فقط از فاصلة 5/3 متری، گروه کنترل ثابت از فاصلة سه‌متری و گروه کنترل-متغیر تمامی فواصل را به‌طور تصادفی تمرین کردند. برای تحلیل دقت پرتاب در مراحل اکتساب از تحلیل واریانس مختلط (3 * 3) (گروه * روز)، در مراحل آزمون از تحلیل واریانس مختلط (3 * 4) (گروه * آزمون) با سطح معناداری 05/0درنظر گرفته‌شد. در آزمون یادداری بین گروه‌ کم‌خطا-متغیر با گروه‌های پرخطا-متغیر (0.001 = P)، پرخطا-ثابت (0.002 = P) و کنترل-ثابت (0.006 = P) تفاوت معنادار وجود داشت. در آزمون انتقال، بین گروه‌ کم‌خطا-متغیر با گروه‌های پرخطا-متغیر (0.001 =P )، پرخطا-ثابت (0.001= P) و کنترل-ثابت (0.002 = P) تفاوت معنادار مشاهده شد. براساس نتایح، پیشنهاد می‌شود که مربیان، کاردرمانان و درمانگران می‌توانند در آموزش مهارت‎های حرکتی روش‌های تمرینی کم‌خطا و کنترل-متغیر را به‌کار گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Based on Error Learning and Practice Variability on Performance Accuracy and Mental Effort

نویسندگان [English]

  • Valiollah Kashani 1
  • Morvarid Momenzadeh 2
  • Zhaleh Bagherli 3
1 Associate Professor of Motor Behavior, University of Semnan
2 M.Sc. Student of Motor Behavior, Azad University- Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran
3 Associate Professor of Motor Behavior, Azad University- Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The use of mental effort in variable practice and errorless training is different, as the reason for the increase in learning skills increase the error in the variable practice, while the optimal result of the practice in the errorless practice is due to the reduction of mental effort in it. The aim of this study was investigating the effect of cognitive effort in variability of practice and implicit learning using both of these learning methods on a complex task and under equal conditions of a cognitive secondary task. For this reason, 72 students were divided to six groups with 12 persons per each group of errorless-variable, errorful-variable, errorless-constant, errorful-constant, control-constant, control-variable. All groups in pre-test, three practice days, acquisition, retention and secondary transfer tests. Participants of errorful-variable group practiced in distances of 3.5, 3.25, 3, 2.75, 2.5 meters respectively, errorless-variable group practiced in the same and conversely distances, while errorless-constant, errorful-constant and control-constant only practiced in 2.5, 3.5 and 3 meters, respectively and control-variable practiced randomly all the distances. For analyzing of throwing accuracy, mixed Variance analysis (3*3) (group*day) in acquisition stage and (3*4) (group*test) in test stage were used with significant level of 0.05. In retention test, there were significant differences between errorless-variable and errorful-variable (P=0.001), errorful-constant (P=0.002) and control-constant (P=0.006). In transfer test, there were significant differences between errorless-variable and errorful-variable (P=0.001), errorful-constant (P=0.0001) and control-constant (P=0.002). Finally, it was concluded that errorless and control-variable practice methods can be suggested to trainers, Therapist for teaching of motor skills.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Practice Variability
  • Errorless implicit learning
  • Cognitive effort
  • Throwing skill
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