دستورالعمل‌های کلامی مربیان و راهبردهای توجه جودوکاران ماهر نوجوان در تمرین و رقابت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای یادگیری حرکتی، دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران

2 استادیار کنترل حرکتی، دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

پژوهش‌هایی اندک دربارة دستورالعمل­های تمرکز توجه و بازخوردهایی کلامی که مربیان هنگام تمرین به ورزشکاران ارائه می­دهند و نیز چگونه این دستورالعمل­ها بر توجه ورزشکاران هنگام رقابت تأثیرگذارند، انجام شده‌اند؛ بنابراین، هدف از انجام این پژوهش، بررسی موضوع ذکرشده در رشتۀ رزمی جودو با استفاده از جودوکاران نوجوان دعوت‌شده به اردوی تیم ملی بود. از 25 جودوکار شرکت­کننده در این پژوهش خواسته شد پرسش‌نامه­ای را تکمیل کنند که درمورد دستورالعمل‌های توجهی و بازخوردهایی کلامی بود که مربیان درحین تمرین به آنان ارائه می­کنند و نیز نوع تمرکز توجهی که خود ورزشکاران در رقابت اتخاذ می­کنند. پرسش­نامۀ ذکرشده از پژوهش­های پیشین برگرفته شده بود و حاوی سؤال‌های چندگزینه­ای و سؤال‌های با پایان باز بود. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان داد که در بیشتر موارد، مربیان ترکیبی از دستورالعمل­های تمرکز درونی و بیرونی و میزان برابری از آگاهی از نتیجه و آگاهی از اجرا را درطی تمرین به ورزشکاران ارائه کردند. همچنین، شرکت‌کنندگان در غالب مراحل اجرای فنون در رقابت­ها بر پیروزی تمرکز داشتند؛ باوجوداین، آنان در مرحلۀ اجرای فن، ذهن خالی را گزارش کردند. به‌نظر می­رسد که جودوکاران نوجوان در سطح تیم ملی درحین اجرای مهارت به جنبه‌ای خاص توجه ندارند یا دست‌کم از تفکرات خود در آن زمان آگاهی ندارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Coaches’ Verbal Instructions and Skilled Adolescent Judo Players’ Attentional Strategies During Training and Competition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Moslem Bahmani 1
  • Gholam Hossein Nazemzadegan 2
1 Ph.D. Student of Motor Learning, Kharazmi University
2 Assistant Professor of Motor Control, University of Shiraz
چکیده [English]

Focus of attention instructions and verbal feedbacks that coaches provide to athletes during practice, and how these instructions and feedbacks affect athletes’ focus of attention during competition has rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the abovementioned issue in the combat sport of judo using adolescents who were invited to national judo team camp. Twenty-five adolescents participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about their coaches’ attentional instructions and verbal feedback during practice, and the judo players reported their focus of attention during competition. The questionnaire was adopted from the previous studies, and included multi-choice and open-ended questions. The majority of participants reported that during practice, their coaches provided equal internal and external focus of attention instructions, and equal knowledge of performance (KP) and knowledge of results (KR) feedback. Further, our results indicated that during most phases of competition the most prevalent theme that participants focused on was “winning and strategy.” However, in the execution phase of skill performance, the most prevalent theme was what was categorized as “clear mind” It seems that during the execution phase, adolescent national-level judo players do not adopt any focus or at least are unaware of their thoughts explicitly. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • External focus
  • Internal Focus
  • Judo
  • Feedback
  • Performance
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