تأثیر بازی در فضای باز طبیعی و سرپوشیده بر رشد اجتماعی و ادراکی کودکان پیش‌دبستانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه تبریز

2 دانشجوی دکتری رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

رشد همة ابعاد وجودی کودک از حرکت سرچشمه می‌گیرد. فراهم‌سازهای محیطی به‌عنوان یک عامل تحریک‌کننده برای استفادة بیشتر از فرصت‌ها مطرح هستند و باعث گسترش تغییرات رشدی می‌شوند.پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیر بازی در دو فضای باز طبیعی و سرپوشیده بر رشد اجتماعی و ادراکی کودکان پیش‌دبستانی انجام شد. در این مطالعه از روش نیمه‌تجربی با طرح پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون، با روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند استفاده شد. نمونة آماری پژوهش 30 نفر از کودکان پیش‌دبستانی 5/4 تا 5/6 ساله بودند که 15 نفر از آن‌ها در مدرسة طبیعت (فضای باز طبیعی) و 15 نفر دیگر در مهدکودک (فضای سرپوشیده) ثبت‌نام کرده بودند. برای سنجش رشد اجتماعی از مقیاس بلوغ اجتماعی واینلند(1953) و برای ارزیابی رشد ادراکی از آزمون‌ یکپارچگی بینایی-حرکتی بیری-بوکتنیکا(1961) استفاده شد. نتایج تحلیل واریانس مرکب نشان داد که فعالیت در فضای باز و سرپوشیده بر رشد اجتماعی و ادراکی کودکان تأثیر مثبت و معنا‌داری داشت، اما بازی در طبیعت اثر بیشتری بر رشد اجتماعی و ادراکی کودکان نسبت به فضای سرپوشیده داشت؛به‌طوری‌که 84 درصد از تغییرات در بهرة اجتماعی کودکان و 88 درصد از تغییرات در یکپارچگی بینایی-حرکتی آن‌ها ناشی از فعالیت در فضای باز و طبیعت بود؛ بنابراین، می‌توان نتیجه گرفت محیط طبیعی نسبت به محیط سرپوشیده بهبود بیشتری در رشد اجتماعی و ادراکی کودکان دارد؛ براین‌اساس، پیشنهاد می‌شود در دوران حساس کودکی، کودکان در فضاهای طبیعی فعالیت بیشتری داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Play in Natural Outdoor and Indoor Space on the Social and Perceptual Development of Preschool Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Fathi Rezaie 1
  • Kosar Abbaspour 2
  • Seyed Hojjat Zamani Sani 1
1 Assistant Professor of Motor Behavior, University of Tabriz
2 PhD Student of Motor Behavior, University of Tabriz
چکیده [English]

The growth of all aspects of the child's existential origins arises. Environmental affordances are considered as a provocative factor to exploit opportunities and promote developmental change. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of play in two space, natural outdoor and indoor space on the social and perceptual development of preschool children. For this purpose, semi-experimental research design with pretest–posttest design and two homogeneous groups was used by convenient method. Statistical sample of research were 30 pre-school children aged 4/5-6/5 that 15 of them at the Natural School (natural outdoor space) and 15 in kindergarten (indoor space) registered. To measure social development, the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and to assess perceptual development, the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration was used. Results of mixed ANOVA showed that activity in outdoor and indoor, had a positive and significant effect on the social and perceptual development of children, but playing in nature had a greater effect on the social and perceptual development of children than indoor space. So that 84% of changes in social age and 88% of changes in their visual-motor Integration were due to outdoor activities. Therefore, the natural environment has a greater improvement in the social and perceptual development of children.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Freely play
  • nature
  • Social development
  • perceptual development
  • preschool children
Ghasemi A, Maghsoodi M, Daneshfar A. Comparison of motor and cognitive development between typically developing preschool children and children born low birth weight. Mot Behav. 2017;9(27):129-40. (In Persian).
Nesbitt KT, Fuhs MW, Farran DC. Stability and instability in the co-development of mathematics, executive function skills, and visual-motor integration from prekindergarten to first grade. Early Child Res Q. 2019;46:262-74.
Araújo D, Brymer E, Brito H, Withagen R, Davids K. The empowering variability of affordances of nature: Why do exercisers feel better after performing the same exercise in natural environments than in indoor environments? Psychol Sport Exerc. 2019;42:138-45.
Pretty J, Rogerson M, Barton J. Green mind theory: How brain-body-behaviour links into natural and social environments for healthy habits. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(7):706.
Fajen إR, Riley MA, Turvey MT. Information, affordances, and the control of action in sport. Int J Sport Psychol. 2009;40(1):79-107.
Freeman C, Tranter, P. Children and their urban environment: Changing worlds. London: Routledge; 2012. p. 19-25.
Wang X, Woolley H, Tang Y, Liu HY, Luo Y. Young children's and adults' perceptions of natural play spaces: A case study of Chengdu, southwestern China. Cities. 2018;72:173-80.
Gray C, Gibbons R, Larouche R, Sandseter, E, Bienenstock A, Brussoni M, Power M. What is the relationship between outdoor time and physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and physical fitness in children? A systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(6):6455-74.
Bento G, Dias G. The importance of outdoor play for young children's healthy development. Porto Biomed J. 2017;2(5):157-60.
White J. Playing and learning outdoors: Making provision for high quality experiences in the outdoor environment with children 3–7. 2nd ed. London: Routledge; 2013.
Momeni Kh, Kahrizi S. The Effectiveness of sand play therapy on the reduction of the aggression in preschool children. Developmental Psychology: Iranian Psychologists. 2015;11(42):147-57. (In Persian).
Azlina W, Zulkiflee AS. A pilot study: The impact of outdoor play spaces on kindergarten children. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2012;38:275-83.
D'Angour A. Plato and Play: Taking education seriously in ancient Greece. Am J Play. 2013;5(3):293-307.
Brussoni M, Olsen LL, Pike I, Sleet DA. Risky play and children's safety: Balancing priorities for optimal child development. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012;9(9):3134-48.
Abri S, Hajyousefi A, Hajbabayi H, Rahgozar M. Comparison of social development between 3-6 years old children who use rural child care center services and who don`t. Social Welfare. 2011;11(41):343-68. (In Persian).
Czalczynska-Podolska M. The impact of playground spatial features on children's play and activity forms: An evaluation of contemporary playgrounds' play and social value. J Environ Psychol. 2014;38:132-42.
Christiana RW, Battista RA, James JJ, Bergman SM. Pediatrician prescriptions for outdoor physical activity among children: A pilot study. Prev Med Rep. 2017;5:    100-5.
Woolley H, Lowe A. Exploring the relationship between design approach and play value of outdoor play spaces. Landsc Res. 2013;38(1):53-74.
Aziz AA, Ahmad AS. Low cost flats outdoor space as children social environment. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2012;38:243-52.
Gill T. The benefits of children's engagement with nature: A systematic literature review. Child Youth Environ. 2014;24(2):10-34.
Dyment JE, Bell AC. Grounds for movement: Green school grounds as sites for promoting physical activity. Health Educ Res. 2007;23(6):952-62.
Luchs A, Fikus M. A comparative study of active play on differently designed playgrounds. J. Adventure Educ. Outdoor Learn. 2013;13(3):206-22.
Gallahue, DL., Ozmun, JC., & Goodway, J. Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, adults. Boston: Mcgraw-Hill; 2006.
Dowdell K, Gray T, Malone K. Nature and its influence on children’s outdoor play. J. Adventure Educ. Outdoor Learn. 2011;15(2):24-35.
Sadeghi F, Safavi Sh, Nezakat Al-Hoseini M. Effect of perceptual-motor exercise on social growth in educable mentally low ability children. Mot Behav. 2017;9(28):     37-52. (In Persian).
Doney R, Lucas BR, Watkins RE, Tsang TW, Sauer K, Howat P, et al. Visual-motor integration, visual perception, and fine motor coordination in a population of children with high levels of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Res Dev Disabil. 2016;55:         346-57.
Evans GW. Child development and the physical environment. Annu Rev Psychol. 2006;57: 423-51.
Gubbels JS, Kremers SP, Van Kann DH, Stafleu A, Candel MJ, Dagnelie PC, et al. Interaction between physical environment, social environment, and child characteristics in determining physical activity at child care. Health Psychol. 2011;30(1):84-90.
Beaty LA. Psychological factors and academic success of visually impaired college students. AER J. 1994;26(3):131-9.
Nucci C, Young-Shim K. Improving socialization through sport: An analytic review of literature on aggression and sportsmanship. Physical Educator. 2005;62(3): 123-9.
Azad F. Educating environment through nature school and its impact on children’s personality, personal and social. [Unpublished master's thesis]: [University of Tehran]. Tehran, Iran; 2016.
Bandura A. Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. Am. Psychol. 1982;37(2):122-47.
Sandseter EB. Affordances for risky play in preschool: The importance of features in the play environment. Early Child Educ J. 2009;36(5):439-46.
Kuh LP, Ponte I, Chau C. The impact of a natural plays cape installation on young children's play behaviors. Child Youth Environ. 2013;23(2):49-77.
Wells NM, Evans GW. Nearby nature: A buffer of life stress among rural children. Environ. Behav. 2003;35(3):311-30.
Feder KP, Majnemer A. Handwriting development, competency, and intervention. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007;49(4):312-7.
Cui Y, Zhu Y, Laukkanen H, Rabin J. Evaluation of visual-motor integration skills in preschool and elementary school-aged Chinese children. [Unpublished PhD dissertation]: [Pacific University]. Forest Grove: Portland; 2004.
Ng M, Chui M, Lin L, Fong A, Chan D. Performance of the visual-motor integration of preschool children in Hong Kong. Hong Kong J Occup Ther. 2015;25:7-14.
Hadavandkhani F, Bahrami H, Behnia F, Farahbod M, Salehi M. The Association of Visual-motor Integration with Handwriting in Students with Mentally Retardation. Research on Exceptional Children. 2007;6(4):839-54. (In Persian).
Acar H. Learning environments for children in outdoor spaces. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2014;141:846-53.