نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشـگاه اصفـهان، اصفهان. ایران

2 دانشکده علوم ورزشی. دانشگاه اصفهان. اصفهان. ایران

چکیده

توضـیح مبتنی بر ویژگـی عمل برای ادراک ادعا می‌کند که ادراک فضایی بر مبنای قابلیت‌های ادراک‌کننده برای انجام عمل تنظیم می‌شود. هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی آثار سطح مهارت و دشواری تکلیف بر ادراک فاصله توسط سنگ‌نوردان بود. از سنگ‌نوردان ماهر (تعداد = ۱۵، میانگین سن = ۷۰/۲ ± ۸۰/۲۳سال، تجربة سنگ‌نوردی = ۷۴/۱ ± ۸۰/۳ سال) و تازه‌کار (تعداد = ۱۵، میانگین سن = ۱۴/۳ ± ۷۳/۲۲ سال، تجربة سنگ‌نوردی کمتر از دو ماه) درخواست شد فاصله‌شان را تا گیره‌های هدف روی دیوارة سنگ‌نوردی به‌صورت کلامی برآورد کنند. دشواری صعود با الزام شرکت‌کنندگان به استفاده از یک کوله‌پشتی سنگین یا شرایط بدون کوله‌پشتی هنگام قضاوت در مورد فاصله تا گیره‌های هدف روی دیواره دست‌کاری شد. فواصل برآورد شده با استفاده از یک طرح تحلیل واریانس مخلوط (کرت‌های تقسیم‌شده) با فاصله تا هدف و دشواری تکلیف به‌عنوان عوامل درون‌آزمودنی‌ها و سطح مهارت به‌عنوان عامل بین آزمودنی‌ها تحلیل شد. نتایج نشان داد تازه‌کار‌ها فواصل هدف را در مقایسه با ماهرها بیشتر تخمین زدند. افزون‌براین، شرکت‌کنندگان در شرایط بدون کوله‌پشتی در مقایسه با شرایط حمل کوله‌پشتی، دسترسی به گیره‌‌های هدف را آسان‌تر ادراک کردند. برای هر دو گروه سنگ‌نوردان ماهر و تازه‌کار، فواصل در وضعیت حمل کوله‌پشتی دورتر از شرایط بدون کوله‌پشتی به نظر می‌رسید. نتایج به‌طورکلی مؤید آن است که اشخاص محیط را بر مبنای توانایی خود در انجام اعمال ادراک می‌کنند و اینکه ادراک ویژة عمل در زمینه‌های مختلف، ازجمله سنگ‌نوردی داخل سالن عمومیت دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Action-specific perception in rock climbing: The effects of skill level and task difficulty

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shokouh Shayesteh 1
  • Hamid Salehi 2
  • Mehdi Rafei 2

1 Faculty of Sport Sciences,, University of. Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran,

2 Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

چکیده [English]

The action-specific account of perception asserts that spatial perception is scaled by the perceiver's capabilities for action. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effects of skill level and task difficulty on distance perception by rock climbers. Skilled (n= 15, Mage = 23.80 ± 2.70 years; rock climbing experience = 3.80 ± 1.74 years) and novice (n = 15, Mage= 22.73 ± 3.14 years; rock climbing experience < two months) rock climbers were asked to verbally estimate their distance to target holds on the indoor climbing wall. Climbing difficulty was manipulated by requiring the participants to wear a heavy backpack or taking it off (no-backpack condition) while judging their distances to the hold targets on the wall. The estimated distances as the dependent variable were analyzed by a mixed design (split-plot) analysis of variance with target distance and task difficulty as within-subjects factors, and skill level as a between-subjects factor. Results showed that the novices estimated the target distances to be farther compared to the skilled rock climbers. Furthermore, the participants perceived the target climbing holds on the no-backpack condition were easier to reach than on the backpack condition. For skilled and novice rock climbers, the distances looked farther on the backpack condition than on the no-backpack condition. The results generally suggest that individuals perceive the environment based on their capabilities to perform actions and that the action-specific perception is common to various types of settings, including indoor rock climbing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • visual perception
  • Distance perception
  • ecological approach
  • perception-action integration
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