بررسی تأثیر دو روش الگودهی ویدئویی و زنده بر فراگیری، یادداری و انتقال مهارت پرتاب‌کردن در کودکان مبتلا به اوتیسم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشیار رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

هدف از ‌پژوهش حاضر، بررسی اثربخشی الگودهی ویدئویی و زنده بر مهارت حرکتی در کودکان مبتلا به اختلال طیف اوتیسم بود. بد‌ین‌منظور، 22 کودک مبتلا به اوتیسم در دامنۀ سنی هفت تا 13 سال در این پژوهش شرکت نمودند. شرکت‌کنندگان به‌صورت تصادفی به سه گروه الگوی ویدئویی، الگوی زنده و کنترل تقسیم شدند و تکلیف مورد‌نظر را در سه جلسۀ متوالی تمرین کردند. شایان‌ذکر است که تکلیف به‌کار‌رفته در این پژوهش، ‌پرتاب کیسۀ لوبیا به وزن 100 گرم توسط شرکت‌کنندگان با دست غیر‌برتر به سمت هدفی بود که ‌روی زمین قرار داشت. 10 دقیقه پس از آخرین بلوک اکتساب، شرکت‌کنندگان آزمون یادداری فوری را انجام دادند و 24 ساعت بعد نیز‌ در آزمون یادداری تأخیری و انتقال شرکت نمودند. نمرات دقت افراد به‌عنوان متغیر وابسته در آزمون تحلیل واریانس مورد‌تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج ‌‌نشان می‌دهد که هر دو نوع روش ارائۀ الگو (ویدئویی و زنده) در یادگیری مهارت حرکتی مؤثر می‌باشد و تفاوتی بین این دو نوع روش ‌‌وجود ندارد. دلیل احتمالی این نتایج می­تواند وجود قید هدف تکلیف باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Video Modeling and in Vivo Modeling on Acquisition, Retention and Transmission of a Throwing Skill in Children with Autism

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nahid Moradi Farsani 1
  • Hamidreza Taheri Torbati 2
  • Alireza Saberi Kakhki 3
1 M.Sc. of Motor Behavior, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Professor of Motor Behavior, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Associate Professor of Motor Behavior, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

The objective of this research was to examine the effectiveness of video and live modelling in developing motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorder. To do so, twenty-two autistic children (7-13 years of age) participated in this study. The task applied required the participants to throw a bean bag (100g) by their non-superior hand toward a target placed on the floor. The participants were divided randomly into video modelling, live modelling and control groups and practiced the target task for 3 consecutive sessions. Individuals was performed immediate retention test 10 minutes after the last block of acquisition. Also, 24 hours after they participated in delayed retention and transfer test. Accuracy scores of participants were analysed as dependent measure in ANOVA test. The results of this study showed that both modelling methods (live and video) are effective in motor skill learning and there is no difference between these two methods. The probable reason for these results could be the task goal constraints. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Live Modelling
  • Motor skill
  • Video Modelling
1. Landa R J, Holman K C, Garrett-Mayer E. Social and communication development in toddlers with early and later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2007; 64(7): 853-64.
2. Baio J. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 Sites, United States; 2012. p. 63-74.
3. Ghaziuddin M, Butler E, Tsai L, Ghaziuddin N. Is clumsiness a marker for Asperger syndrome?. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 1994 Oct 1;38(5):519-27.
4. Manjiviona J, Prior M. Comparison of Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autistic children on a test of motor impairment. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 1995; 25(1): 23-39.
5. Engel A. Physical activity participation in children with Autism spectrum disorders: An exploratory study. University of Toronto; Doctoral dissertation, 2011.
6. Baron-Cohen S, Scott F J, Allison C, Williams J, Bolton P, Matthews F E, et al. Prevalence of Autism-spectrum conditions: UK school-based population study. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 2009; 194(6): 500-9.
7. Gidley Larson J C, Mostofsky Sh. Evidence that the pattern of visuomotor sequence learning is altered in children with autism. Autism Research. 2008; 1(6): 341-53.
8. Magill R A, Anderson D. Motor learning and control: Concepts and applications. 11th edition, New York: McGraw-Hill; 2007. p. 75-89.
9. Bellini S, Akullian J. A meta-analysis of video modeling and video self-modeling interventions for children and adolescents with Autism spectrum disorders. Exceptional Children. 2007; 73(3): 264-87.
10. Bellini S, Akullian J, Hopf A. Increasing social engagement in young children with autism spectrum disorders using video self-modeling. School Psychology Review. 2007; 36(1): 80.
11. Ste-Marie D M, Law B, Rymal A M, Jenny O, Hall C, McCullagh P. Observation interventions for motor skill learning and performance: An applied model for the use of observation. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2012; 5(2): 145-76.
12. Gena A, Couloura S, Kymissis E. Modifying the affective behavior of preschoolers with Autism using in-vivo or video modeling and reinforcement contingencies. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2005; 35(5): 545-56.
13. Grosberg D, Charlop M. Teaching persistence in social initiation bids to children with autism through a portable video modeling intervention (PVMI). Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities. 2014; 26(5): 527-41.
14. Wilson K P. Teaching social-communication skills to preschoolers with Autism: Efficacy of video versus in vivo modeling in the classroom. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2013; 43(8): 1819-31.
15. Feltz D L, Landers D M, Raeder U. Enhancing self-efficacy in high avoidance motor tasks: A comparison of modeling techniques. Journal of Sport Psychology. 1979; 1(2): 112-22.
16. Kampiotis S, Theodorakou K. The influence of five different types of observation based teaching on the cognitive level of learning. Kineziologija. 2007; 38(2): 116-25.
17. Kernodle M W, McKethan R N, Rabinowitz E. Observational learning of fly casting using traditional and virtual modeling with and without authority figure 1. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2008; 107(2): 535-46.
18. Buggey T, Hoomes G, Sherberger M E, Williams S. Facilitating social initiations of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders using video self-modeling. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities. 2011; 26(1): 25-36.
19. Charlop-Christy M H, Le L, Freeman K A. A comparison of video modeling with in vivo modeling for teaching children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2000; 30(6): 537-52.
20. Ergenekon Y, Tekin-Iftar E, Kapan A, Akmanoglu N. Comparison of video and live modeling in teaching response chains to children with autism. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities. 2014; 49(2): 200-13.
21. Chiviacowsky S, Wulf G, de Medeiros F L, Kaefer A, Tani G. Learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results in 10-year-old children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2008; 79(3): 405-10.
22. Breslin G, Hodges N J, Williams A M, Kremer J, Curran W. A comparison of intra-and inter-limb relative motion information in modelling a novel motor skill. Human Movement Science. 2006; 25(6): 753-66.
23. Breslin G, Hodges N J, Williams M A. Effect of information load and time on observational learning. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2009; 80(3): 480-90.
24. Yanardag M, Akmanoglu N, Yilmaz I. The effectiveness of video prompting on teaching aquatic play skills for children with Autism. Disability and Rehabilitation. 2013; 35(1): 47-56.
25. Hayes S J, Hodges N J, Huys R, Williams A M. End-point focus manipulations to determine what information is used during observational learning. Acta Psychologica. 2007; 126(2): 120-37.
26. Horn R R, Williams A M, Scott M A. Learning from demonstrations: The role of visual search during observational learning from video and point-light models. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2002; 20(3): 253-69.
27. Wild K S, Poliakoff E, Jerrison A, Gowen E. Goal-directed and goal-less imitation in Autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2012; 42(8): 1739-49.
28. Ashford D, Bennett S J, Davids K. Observational modeling effects for movement dynamics and movement outcome measures across differing task constraints: A meta-analysis. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2006; 38(3): 185-205.
29. Latash M L. Fundamentals of motor control. First edition. London: Academic Press; 2012. p. 33-51.