تأثیرآموزش براساس تربیت‌بدنی رشدی بر اختلال کمبود توجه/بیش‌فعالی دانش‌آموزان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار رفتار حرکتی، گروه تربیت‌بدنی، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

2 استادیار رفتار حرکتی، پژوهشگاه تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی

3 کارشناسی‌ارشد تربیت بدنی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز

4 استادیار رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه پیام‌نور، تهران

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش، تعیین تأثیر آموزش براساس تربیت‌بدنی رشدی بر سطوح اختلال کمبود توجه/ بیش‌فعالی دانش‌آموزان بود. تعداد 40 دانش‌آموز پسر (هفت تا 10 سال) مبتلا به اختلال کمبود توجه/ بیش‌فعالی، درقالب یک مطالعة نیمه‌تجربی با طرح پیش‌آزمون پس‌آزمون، از مدارس ابتدایی شهر گرگان در سال تحصیلی 95-1394 انتخاب شدند، به‌صورت تصادفی در دو گروه (تجربی و کنترل) جای گرفتند و در یک دورة سه ماهة آموزش براساس تربیت بدنی رشدی (دو جلسة یک‌ساعتی در هفته) شرکت کردند. مداخله شامل آموزش و تمرین مهارت‌های حرکتی بنیادی و مؤلفه‌های آمادگی جسمانی مطابق با استانداردهای تربیت‌بدنی رشدی برای رده سنی مربوط بود که درقالب بازی برای تأمین نیازهای جسمانی، شناختی و حرکتی گنجانده شد. سطوح اختلال با استفاده از فرم کوتاه مقیاس درجه‌بندی والدین کانرز و مصاحبه‌های تشخیصی اندازه‌گیری شدند و داده‌ها با استفاده از تحلیل کوواریانس در سطح اطمینان 95 درصد تجزیه‌وتحلیل شدند. نتایج نشان داد که پس از کنترل سطوح پیش‌آزمون، مشکلات سلوک، مشکلات اجتماعی، اضطراب- خجالتی، روان‌تنی و نمرة کلی اختلال کمبود توجه/ بیش‌فعالی گروه تجربی، در پس‌آزمون به‌طور معناداری پایین‌تر از گروه کنترل قرار دارند. براساس یافته‌های پژوهش حاضر، یک دورة سه ماهة آموزش براساس تربیت‌بدنی رشدی در کاهش نشانگان اختلال کمبود توجه/ بیش‌فعالی در دانش‌آموزان پسر اثربخش است و می‌تواند به‌عنوان یک مداخلة مناسب به‌‌کار گرفته شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Education Based on the Developmental Physical Education on Students’ Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Dana 1
  • Saleh Rafiee 2
  • Tina Soltan Ahmadi 3
  • Amir Hamzeh Sabzi 4
1 Assistance Professor of Motor Behavior, Department of Physical Education, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
2 Assistance Professor of Motor Behavior, Sport Sciences Research Institute of Iran (SSRI), Tehran, Iran
3 M.Sc. of Physical Education, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
4 Assistance Professor of Motor Behavior, Payame Noor University
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of education based on the developmental physical education on students’ attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. To this aim, 40 boy students (7 to 10 years old) with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, in a quasi-experimental study with per- and post-test design, were selected from Gorgan city’s primary schools in 2015-2016 academic year, and randomly assigned into two groups (experimental and control) and participated in a three-month period course (two sessions of one-hour weekly) of education based on the developmental physical education. The intervention consisted of education and exercise of the fundamental movement skills and physical fitness components according to the developmental physical education for related age group, which embedded in game format to supply physical, cognitive and movement demands. The level of disorder was measured using short form of Conner’s Parents Ratting Scale and diagnostic interviews, and the resulted data were analyzed using analysis of covariance at 95 percent confidence level. The results showed that after controlling for pre-test levels, conduct problems, social problems, anxiety-shyness, psychosomatic, and overall level of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in experimental group at post-test is significantly lower than control group. Based on the findings of the study, a three-month period course of education based on the developmental physical education is effective in reduction of symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in boy students and it can be applied as a proper intervention.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attention-Deficit
  • Hyperactivity
  • Developmental Physical Education
  • Boy Students
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