تأثیر قابلیت محیط (فراهم‏سازها) روی ادراک بینایی و تعادل کودکان دچار اختلالات ذهنی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه تهران

3 استاد رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه تهران

4 استادیار آسیب‏شناسی ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران. گروه آسیب شناسی ورزشی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان. گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی،دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

هدف از پژوهش حاضر تعیین تأثیر قابلیت محیط (فراهمسازها) روی ادراک بینایی و تعادل کودکان دچار اختلالات ذهنی شش تا نه‌ساله بود.این پژوهش کاربردی و از نوع نیمه‌تجربی )مداخله‌ای( بود. جامعةآماریاینپژوهشتمامکودکان دچار اختلالات ذهنی ششتا نه‌سالة در سال 1396 به تعداد 175 کودک بود. با توجه به امکانات و همکاری مدیران و معلمان مدارس استثنایی شهر ستان، از این تعداد، 50 دانش‌آموز پسر به‌صورت نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب شدند و سپس به‌صورت تصادفی در یکی از گروه‌های آزمایش یا کنترل قرار گرفتند (25 نفر در هر گروه). آزمودنی‌ها در گروه آزمایش به‌مدت 36 جلسه (سه ماه و هفته ای سه جلسه) و هر جلسه 30 تا 45 دقیقه تحت آموزش و تمرین برنامه‌های خاصی که شامل فراهم‌سازی محیطی با قابلیت زیاد در راستای بهبود متغیرهای پژوهش بود و در محیط مدرسه اجرا می‌شد قرار گرفتند. برای ارزیابی مهارت‌های رشد حرکتی کودکان از آزمون تبحر حرکتی بروینینکز ـ اوزرتسکی و آزمون مهارت‌های ادراک بینایی (TVPS) استفاده شد. داده‌ها با روش آماری آنالیز کوواریانس تجزیه‌وتحلیل شدند.نتایج به‌دست‌آمده نشان داد که فراهم‌سازها روی مهارت‌های رشد حرکتی در دو مهارت ادراک بینایی و تعادل تأثیر داشته است (P<0.01)،همچنین، نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که فراهم‌سازها در متغیر اکمال بینایی (تشخیص شکل‌ها از نمادهای ناکامل آنها) تأثیری نداشتند (P>0.05). یافته‌های پژوهش نشان داد که لازم است به محیط و توانایی‌های محیطی و استفاده از روش‌های مناسب فراهم‌سازی به‌منظور افزایش ادراک بینایی و تعادل کودکان دارای اختلال ذهنی توجه ویژه داشت و با استفاده از قابلیت محیط، مهارت‌های ادراک بینایی و تعادل را در کودکان دچار اختلال ذهنی بهبود بخشید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Environmental Affordances on Perception of Vision and Balance in Children with Intellectual Disability

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Homayounnia 1
  • Mahmoud Sheikh 2
  • Rasool Hemayattalab 3
  • Shahnaz Shahrbanian 4
1 PH. D. Student of Motor Behavior, University of Tehran
2 Associate Professor of Motor Behavior, University of Tehran
3 Professor of Motor Behavior, University of Tehran
4 Assistent Professor of Corrective Exercise & Sport Injury, Bou Ali Sina University
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of environmental affordances on Perception of vision and balance in children with intellectual disability. This was a quasi-experimental study. Target population included 175 children (6-9 years old) with intellectual disability living in Babol in 1396. Among them 50 children were conveniently recruited and randomly divided into two groups: experimental and control group (25 per each group). The experimental group went under a specific program including the environmental affordances, such as, facilities, training, and exercises focusing on motor skills development of children. The intervention lasted for 36 weeks, 3 sessions per week, and 30 to 45 minutes per session. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test and Perception of vision (TVPS) of Motor Proficiency was used to assess the motor skills development of participants. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that the environmental affordances were effective in improving motor skills such as the Perception of vision and balance (P<0.01). Also, Also, the results of this study showed that the providers did not have any effect on the visual acuity variables (P>0.05). The findings of this study showed that it is necessary to pay attention to the environment and environmental abilities and the use of suitable methods for increasing visual perception and balance of children with mental disorder and using the ability of the environment to recognize the skills of vision and balance in Children with mental disorders improved.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environment
  • Perception of Vision
  • Balance
  • Children
  • intellectual disability
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