اثر مداخلة تمرین حرکتی بر کارکرد اجرایی و انعطاف شناختی پسران هشت تا 10 سالة دارای اختلال هماهنگی رشدی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار بیومکانیک و رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه مازندران

2 استاد روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

چکیده

اختلال هماهنگی رشدییکی از اختلال‌های شایع رشدی است که بر عملکرد تحصیلی و حرکتی تأثیر می‌‌گذارد. در این مطالعه به بررسی اثر مداخلة تمرین‌های حرکتی بر کارکرد اجرایی و انعطاف شناختی کودکان با اختلال هماهنگی رشدی پرداخته شده است. این پژوهش به روش نیمه‌تجربی با پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون اجرا شده است. تعداد 18 کودک براساس معیارهای دستورالعمل آماری و تشخیصی اختلال‌های روانی نسخة چهارم، ازمیان دانش‌آموزانپسر پایة دوم تا پایة چهارم دورة ابتدایی منطقة یک تهران غربال شدند. سپس، آن‌ها به‌صورت تصادفی در دو گروه تجربی (نُه نفر با میانگین سنی 39/1 ± 6/8) و کنترل (نُه نفر با میانگین سنی 15/1 ± 11/8) قرار گرفتند. در پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون، دو متغیر کارکرد اجرایی و انعطاف شناختی با استفاده از ابزار VSX Assessment platform اندازه‌گیری شدند. گروهتجربی تمرین‌های حرکتی منتخب را بهمدت 20 جلسة 75 دقیقه‌ای (سه جلسه در هفته) انجام دادند. از روش تحلیل کوواریانس برای تحلیل داده‌ها استفاده شد. مقایسة پس‌آزمون گروه کنترل و تجربی نشان داد که کارکرد اجرایی کودکان با اختلال هماهنگی رشدی پس از مداخلة تمرینی بهبود معنادار داشته است ( P = 0.021)، اما در متغیر انعطاف شناختی تغییری معنادار مشاهده نشد ( P = 0.193). براساس نتایج پژوهش، احتمالاً تمرین‌های بدنی می‌توانند زیربنای شناختی رفتار حرکتی را بهبود دهند؛ بنابراین، باید گفت که مداخله‌های حرکتی راهی امن برای بهبود اختلال هماهنگی رشدی هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Exercise Intervention on Executive Function and Cognitive Flexibility in 8-10 Years Old Boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somayeh Namdar Tajari 1
  • Reza Rostami 2
  • Mansooreh Mokkaberian 3
1 Assistant Professor of Sport Biomechanics and Motor Behavior, Mazandaran University
2 Professor of Psychology, University of Tehran
3 Assistant Professor of Motor Behavior, Shahrood University of Technology
چکیده [English]

Developmental Coordination Disorder is a common disorder that affects academic and motor performance. This study evaluates the effect of physical exercises on executive function and cognitive flexibility in children with DCD. This research was carried out semi-experimentally with pre-test and post-test. Eighteen children who were screened according to the criteria of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders from 2nd to 4th grade elementary school students in first district of Tehran, then randomly divided into experimental group (nine subjects with a mean age of 8.6 ± 1.39) and control group (nine subjects with a mean age of 8.11 ± 1.15). Executive performance and cognitive flexibility were measured in the pre-test and post-test. The experimental group performed the selected motor exercises for 20 sessions of seventy-five minutes (three sessions per week). Analysis of Covariance was used to data analyze. Comparison of post-test and experimental group showed that the performance of children with developmental coordination disorder after intervention was significantly improved (P = 0.021), but there was no significant change in cognitive flexibility (P = 0.193). The results of this study indicate that physical activity may improve the cognitive basis of motor behavior. Therefore, motor interventions are a safe way to improve the developmental coordination disorder.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Developmental Coordination Disorder
  • Executive Function
  • Cognitive Flexibility
  • Exercise Intervention
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